The Drinking Woman’s Diet.

I have finally got my hands on a physical copy of my new book: The Drinking Woman’s Diet. It’s been a long time coming. The idea for this book originally came about at the end of wine tour in Bordeaux. A client, groaning from a week of fabulous food and wine, asked me ‘how do you do this all the time and keep in shape?

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The Drinking Woman’s Diet finally!

 

Well the first answer is I don’t do it all the time, but I do it a lot; I drink wine for a living. I teach wine classes, run tastings and talk at wine dinners for professionals and enthusiastic amateurs around the world. I take people around vineyards and wineries of Bordeaux and, with the objective of keeping an open mind, I constantly sample wines from around the world and taste my way through wine regions.

It’s a wonderful job but, as with many things, there is a downside. The benefits of wine drinking are constantly being lauded in the press but so are the risks. Adding insult to injury, wine goes with food, and tasting dinners are rarely very light affairs. So, as well as keeping an eye on the state of my liver, I try to keep an eye on my waistline.

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All in a days work?

As I chatted with my client and started sharing a few tricks and tips, she suggested I write them down and hand them out before starting the wine tour. So the book started by sharing a few survival tricks and techniques: the lessons I have learnt from French women, from my friends, therapists and other yogis to try and maintain a healthy body in what may initially appear an unhealthy industry.

Not long after this conversation I went for an acupuncture consultation. The acupuncturist said well there’s nothing really wrong with you, except perhaps for your liver; he stuck a couple of needles in between my thumb and forefinger and next to my big toes to help it out. Not long after that, at the Mayr clinic in Austria, the Doctor looked into my eyes, pinched my cheek and said aha – your liver. That was before I had even mentioned that I drink for a living.

This made me think that I should take an even closer look at this drinking habit of mine. As a female baby boomer, I’m right there in the category of drinkers increasing their health risks through their habits. And I’m not alone.

At the recent launch of his book, Wine – A Way of Life, Steven Spurrier was also asked how he managed to stay so trim, despite working in the wine business. His answer: Vanity. Vanity is a great motivator; as a woman and a fairly vain one at that, the effects of excess boozing are seen not just in the liver, but also in your eyes, in your skin, your waistline so I was interested in seeing how I can allay these side effects of my chosen lifestyle and what the motivators are and how to harness them.

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Steven spurrier – still dapper after all these years!

Why The Drinking Woman? Well I’m a woman and I drink! In the book I have tried to speak from my point of view and experience. Researching the various ideas was a lot more time consuming than I anticipated, there is a lot of weird and wonderful theories out there, so I tried to focus on what worked for me.

I have already been asked ‘what about men?’ Men are more than welcome to read along, but women are at a disadvantage when it comes to drinking. The recommended limits for women are lower than for men.

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Dedicated to Drinking Women;

Many of my friends work in the wine industry (and many, many more support it through their drinking habits). I thought I had better start looking at ways to keep my liver happy and healthy while maintaining my love of wine. This includes yoga. I have a passion for yoga and when I recently organised some wine and yoga retreats in Bordeaux the question was raised how can you seriously combine wine and yoga. Aren’t wine drinking and healthy living incompatible? I don’t think so. Mindfulness is a key tenet of yoga, and a big deal right now – I’m all about mindful drinking, enjoying and paying attention to what it is you are enjoying.

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Wine and Yoga at Château Lamothe Bergeron

Over the time it has taken me to research this book it evolved into a compilation of advice from various health, fitness and beauty specialists, medical reviews and books, put together to help fellow wine lovers who are not prepared to give up their habit but not prepared to sacrifice their health either.

The title is a little misleading, but it is a great title. This is not a weight loss diet, but weight loss, if you need it, should be a happy by-product of following the healthy lifestyle tips in the book.

The strap line on my web site is: Knowledge increases pleasure. Knowledge is also power, power to make the right decisions. Deep down you know if your drinking habit is an issue, if it’s affecting your waistline, your health, your performance, and your skin so let’s stop hiding from it and work out how to enjoy a drink and still be on top of our game.

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Eat your greens French style – with truffle oil and walnuts!

I like to stay fit and healthy and I hope to grow old not too disgracefully, but not too carefully either. The book will not give you an excuse to drink to excess but I’m not looking to demonise drink either, after all wine is how I make a living. I hope the book captures a holistic approach to health, including diet but also yoga, sleep and so much more and that The Drinking Woman’s Diet will provide some inspiration on how to enjoy wine without putting your figure, your face, your health or your sanity at too much risk.

You can buy a paperback copy here or the e book on line or please e-mail me if you would like a signed copy. And of course Bordeaux Bootcamp is still available on Amazon if you want to learn more about Bordeaux and it’s wines

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What makes Champagne great – what makes a great Champagne?

I often get asked what makes a great Bordeaux, so, on a trip to Champagne, with UK Champagne Ambassador 2010 and Champagne specialist Laura Clay, it was my turn to ask the questions. On a lightning trip, Laura shared some amazing places and wines. It would have been longer were it not for the French train strike – but I suppose it’s good to leave thirsty……

Any great wine depends on an intimate mix of terroir and climate, the skill of the wine maker, the will and rigour to select fruit and the nerve to wait and hope for the perfect balance of ripeness and acidity. We looked at all of this.

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In the terroir of Champagne – the chalk walls in the caves of Maison Deutz

The vineyards of Champagne are dominated by rolling limestone hillsides, or more precisely chalk. Visiting the huge underground cellars you can feel this terroir – the damp sticky consistency of the chalk subsoil is there right behind the rows and rows of champagne bottles stocked in the acres of underground cellars.

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The Vines and Rolling Hills of Champagne

An important skill that Bordeaux and Champagne wine makers both need is blending. There are single varietal wines in both the regions, more famously in Champagne with Blanc de Blancs from Chardonnay, but blending remains key. Here they have Meunier (apparently nobody here says Pinot Meunier), Pinot Noir and Chardonnay to ‘play’ with. These are planted in 320 villages (‘Crus’) over 35 000 ha of vines divided into 280 000 different plots. Each plot is part of a mosaic of unique combinations of climate, soil and topography giving another layer of complexity to the notion of varietal blending as these plots are picked and vinified separately.

Then there is the blend of vintages for Non Vintage Champagne (NV) with the use of reserve wines. The notion of vintage is different in Champagne; around 70% of production is non-vintage, varying from year to year. Any house or producer can declare a vintage if they consider their wines up to par that year. If it is declared vintage, all the wine in the blend must come from that vintage. Non-vintage will be a blend from different years.

And then there is a whole other set of decisions to be made around the secondary fermentation, or prise de mousse, in the bottle. The time spent sur lattes, on the lees, during the second fermentation; this must be at least 15 months for NV and a minimum of three years for vintage. But the winemaker can choose to age for longer before disgorgement making the wine richer and more complex. The style of the liqueur de dosage – added to the bottle after disgorgement – also dictates the style of the Champagne, whether it be Brut, as most are, or anywhere between Zero Dosage to Demi-Sec. There is even a Doux (sweet) style of champagne.

There are choices for the first fermentation too; to undergo malolactic or not and the containers the wine is fermented in. With more and more experimentation at every level of the process, I don’t think there has been a more exciting time to discover the wonderful complexity that is Champagne – even on my short trip; I was wowed by the diversity.

How to navigate this diversity? If you thoughtLa Place de Bordeaux’ system of châteaux, brokers and negociants is complicated take a long look at the Champagne system. Some, but not all houses (Maisons), own vines and some, but not all, growers make their own champagne – choosing to sell some or all of their grapes to the houses. 15 800 growers hold 90% of the vines but the 320 houses sell 70% of the 300 M bottles produced (on average) each year, the remaining third is sold by independent growers and co-ops.

This raises the question of ‘What makes an expensive Champagne?’ Champagne may be smaller in size than Bordeaux but it is up there as far as value is concerned. 4.9 Billion euros turnover for 300 million bottles (Bordeaux turns over 4 Billion Euros for about 600 million bottles)

Perceived value is important. Quality is, of course, part of value but so is market history and consistency. They are very good at marketing in Champagne, brand identity is strong and the notion of consistency of style is of particular importance to the champagne houses and Grand Marques. Their objective is to create a house style that remains the same wherever and whenever you buy it across the globe, especially for the houses that have a large production and international reach. Buying from the many grape growers across the region, from the different terroirs and crus, offers a large palette from which they can blend to ensure this consistency and it’s no mean feat.

They are all pursuing quality but each champagne house seems to have a different approach or philosophy behind the method and the desire to communicate their difference. This might explain why there are so many champagne houses, and why each champagne house attaches such importance to their house style.

What style of champagne are you looking for? This may change with occasion, as an aperitif or to accompany a meal (more of which later), to celebrate a special occasion, a gift?   Quality can be technically defined, but style and preference is such a personal choice. Not sure of your preferred style? Taste as much Champagne as you can, from as many producers and houses as you can – purely in the interests of research, you understand! In this spirit here’s some of the conclusions from my recent visit to three houses where I saw three different points of view and a huge variety of styles

Straight off the TGV, AR Lenoble in Damery was our first stop. It is the perfect place to start your Champagne style discovery; their range of wines is both stunning and eclectic. AR Lenoble is 100% family owned and 100% independent and has been since the very beginning, a rare thing in Champagne. They own 18 hectares of vineyards mainly in the Grand Cru village of Chouilly for Chardonnay, in the Premier Cru village of Bisseuil for Pinot Noir, and also in the village of Damery in the Marne Valley where their cellars are.

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The A R Lenoble range

Twenty years ago sister-and-brother Anne and Antoine Malassagne, great-grandchildren of the founder, took over, and they have quietly innovated in the vines, the cellars and the marketing ever since.

Biodiversity and ecological responsibility are buzzwords throughout the wine industry and Champagne is no exception. AR Lenoble was the second House in Champagne to be awarded the “Haute Valeur Environnementale” certification in 2007 (nearly organic). You can see their efforts in the vineyard; encouraging biodiversity through natural habitat with hedgerows, orchards, embankments, trees, low stone walls, and ploughing and grassing between the vines, which also has the advantage of limiting yields. Less is more.

Innovation can be a back to the future moment; the two fresh pairs of eyes took their time to re assess the process from field to bottle and instead of throwing out everything from the past they incorporated the best practices. For example, pressing is still done in three traditional and beautiful Coquard presses.

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The ancient Coquard press at A R Lenoble

The plot-by-plot wine-making takes place in a range of different vessels, some in small 225 litre barrels, others in 5000-litre vats or in stainless steel or enamel-lined tanks. The choice depends on the plot and the vintage, as does the decision to undertake malolactic fermentation, or not.

A peculiarity of AR Lenoble is the attention paid to the ageing of their reserve wines. In 1993, when they took over, the brother and sister team decided to start conserving their reserve wines in 225-litre barrels, using the principle of the perpetual reserve, topping up with each harvest. This is more familiar perhaps as the term Solera used in Sherry. The 5,000-litre casks allow for slower ageing than in barrels, bringing extra freshness to the wines. There are now two reserve wines: one uniquely from the Grand Cru village of Chouilly and the other that is based on Chardonnay from Chouilly blended with Pinot Noir from the Premier Cru village of Bisseuil. They are both aged in a mix of cuves, fûts and foudres, topped up each year with new wines.

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La Reserve Perpetuelle at A R Lenoble

In 2010, innovating again, they took a portion of this ‘reserve perpetuelle’ and placed it in magnums under natural cork. Thus allowing the signature aromatic richness to develop whilst preserving freshness by limiting the oxygen exchange. Freshness is important and Antoine believes it will become even more so with climate change. He sees each harvest coming in with lower acidity levels than they used to have, so the reserve wines now need to add freshness as well as complexity and richness.

The timing for our first ever visit to the house was perfect, they had just released the first non-vintage wines containing these reserve wines aged in the magnums.

Antoine Malassagne made the decision to use these unique reserve wines into his blend following the 2014 harvest. The reserve wine from the Magnums was blended with parts of the ‘reserve perpetuelle’. This was in turn blended, with 60% wines from the 2014 harvest (total reserve wine of 40%). This final blend was then bottled and aged on their lees for three years in their 18th-century chalk cellars in Damery.

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Stairway to heaven – the entrance to the A R Lenoble 18th century caves in Damery

Got that? It took me a while; check out the diagram below – it might help. Still not sure – taste them – all will be come clear. The AR Lenoble Intense “mag14” and AR Lenoble Grand Cru Blanc de Blancs Chouilly “mag14” are now available with the Mag 14 logo clearly visible on the bottle. Jancis Robinson called it unignorable, in a recent article on her site, rating the AR Lenoble Grand Cru Blancs de Blancs Chouilly « mag 14 » NV up there with Louis Roederer Cristal Vintage 2008 and Dom Pérignon Vintage 2008.

Mag 14

We will have to return to Damery for the first edition of AR Lenoble Brut Nature Dosage Zéro “mag14” in 2019 and then again in 2020 for the first edition of AR Lenoble Rosé Terroirs Chouilly-Bisseuil “mag14”. Not a hardship.

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The identification of the Mag 14 on the bottle

We were also treated to an amazing tasting of their range. I was stunned by just how diverse the wines were. The showstopper? Hard to choose, Laura loved the Grand Cru Blanc de Blancs Chouilly “Mag14but Les Aventures probably got my vote. Normally I’m a ‘Blanc de noirs’ girl but this 100% Chardonnay, from the Grand Cru Village of Chouilly, was quite extraordinary. A blend of the excellent 2002 and 2006 vintages, it takes its name from the tiny (less than 1/2 ha) plot where the grapes are grown – but it really is an adventure in the glass, if you can find it, try it!

I don’t come to Champagne as often as I would like but when I have been I have been lucky enough to visit Maison Deutz on several occasions. I love their Champagne; part of this love affair was born from the ‘esprit’ of the house. Despite being part of the Roederer Group since 1983, Deutz has kept its family atmosphere. It is rightly proud of its heritage, clearly seen in the beautifully preserved family home in Ay, next to the historic cellars which run for 3kms under chalk vine covered hills.

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Les Glacières, the slopes behind Maison Deutz in Aÿ

The Deutz Brut Classic – is just that – a classic, I love the fact that it is made from one third of each of the varietals, spends three years on the lees (sur lattes) and is never disappointing. Diversity in style across different champagnes may be a part of the joy of discovering Champagne but for a brand the notion of consistency is so very important. Deutz owns 42 hectares of vines out of the 245 hectares they source the wine from – giving them the flexibility across the vintages they need for this consistency.

Another reason why Deutz has remained such a firm favourite is their generous hospitably. The Deutz family home must be an inspiration to work in, it was certainly an inspirational place to taste their wines and enjoy them with lunch.

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One of the beautifully preserved interiors of Maison Deutz

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and the old cellars

Embarrassingly, I had forgotten quite what great food wine champagne is. There is no doubt it is a great aperitif wine, a wonderful after dinner drink and, of course, a celebratory tipple. But a lunch in the spectacular dining room of Deutz put me back on track.

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A taste of Deutz

If you have never had the opportunity to have a meal matched uniquely to champagne, I highly recommend the experience. Champagne styles are diverse, tasting several champagnes side by side, from the same, or from different houses, illustrates this, but a meal served with different champagnes highlights these differences even more and shows just what a versatile wine champagne is.

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The amazing selection of champagne served at Maison Deutz

Deutz have just released a special edition of the NV Rosé that is perfect for summer drinking. This is a blend of the 90% Pinot Noir Grands Crus from the Montagne de Reims with 10% Chardonnay blended with about 8% of red wine made by the cellar master from old vines on the hill of Aÿ. The wine is then aged for three years on its lees. With rosé the appreciation always starts with the colour, with this special edition in particular, thanks to the label and box decorated with pink Japanese Cherry Blossom. It’s a perfect aperitif but try it with salmon, creamy cheese or any red berry dessert – you won’t be disappointed.

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Summer drinking from Maison Deutz

I finished with the big guns, a visit to Ruinart, part of the large LVMH wine and spirits portfolio. The oldest of the Champagne Houses, Ruinart was created in 1729, and is right in the centre of Reims. The cathedral like Crayeres cellars, a Unesco heritage site since 2015, are amazing. See the video here

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The cathedral like cellars under Ruinart

The visit was organised by Laura for the AWE (Association of Wine Educators) so the champagne geeks were out in force and Ruinart rose elegantly to the occasion thanks to Caroline Fiot, the winemaker, who shone as much as her champagne. Caroline was a perfect example of the dynamism of the new generation of wine makers in Champagne, her competence in explaining to an audience thirsty (excuse the pun) for technical details blew us away and put us in our place once or twice!

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Caroline Fiot puts us through our tasting paces at Ruinart

She treated us to a technical tasting of their signature Blanc de Blancs, two non-vintages: one from magnum, and the Dom Ruinart Blanc de Blancs vintage 2006. Blanc de Blancs is really their signature, with the aromatic freshness Chardonnay coming from about 80% 1er Cru grapes.

The three wines could have been so similar, being all 100% Chardonnay – but no. The NV in bottle was based on 2015 wine with reserve wines from 13 & 14 and the magnum NV was based on 2014 base wine with 12 & 13 reserve wines. The Dom Ruinart 2006 100% Grand Cru vineyards, spends nine years on the lees before being disgorged in March 2016 (the disgorgement date is mentioned on the label). This is the 24th vintage of this wine, the first was produced in 1959, Dom Ruinart is always and only vintage.

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Blanc de Blancs, the Ruinart signature

The notion of freshness was discussed at great length, the same challenge of the ripeness of the grapes raised by Antoine Malassagne at A R Lenoble. The response here is to reduce the percentage of reserve wine in a bid to maintain that all-important freshness, especially as their still wines systematically undergo malolactic fermentation. They choose not to use oak for ageing the reserve wine and use a pneumatic press for the harvest again to maintain that signature freshness. Same problem, different solutions – fascinating.

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It’s not all work and no play at Ruinart

If you want to learn more about champagne, you should, of course, visit – if you can’t, you can learn more at the interactive wine school, Champagne Campus,  created by the Champagne Wine Bureau or ask Laura Clay, Chairman of the AWE, to organise a tutored tasting, she’ll be happy to demonstrate that famous diversity and you may even find your answer to ‘What makes a great Champagne?’

 

Wine and Design – a new look at Bordeaux.

Occasionally I’m asked if I get bored with what I do for a living, after all, I have been sharing Bordeaux for over 20 years through wine tours and teaching. Well no, with over 8000 Chateaux to choose from and a new vintage every year, monotony is not on the cards. Sometimes, something brings a completely new perspective on Bordeaux, even after all these years. The Wine and Design tour did just that. Viewing familiar properties through another person’s eyes is fascinating.

It’s not news that Bordeaux has spectacular wine cellars; I have mentioned some in previous blogs, (Mouton, Pedesclaux, Marquis d’Alesme, Cheval Blanc) but on this Wine and Design Tour, thanks to Interior designer Abigail Hall, design and architecture took centre stage, with the wine almost an added bonus. Be reassured it wasn’t a dry tour!
Abigail’s passion for design and architecture is not a surprise; it’s what she does for a living. Designing happiness is her strapline and judging by her sunny disposition, she must be pretty good at it.

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Abigail Hall takes a close look at the design of Bordeaux doors.

The objective of the tour was to illustrate how, since the 17th century, architecture of both the city and chateaux has been used as a showcase for the wealth and the wines of the region. Bordeaux and its vineyards have been around since Roman times. Although only the Palais Gallien amphitheatre, from the third century, still remains in the city, la rue Sainte Catherine, supposedly the longest pedestrian shopping street in Europe, follows the path of an old Roman road from North to South. There are still some Roman remains in the vines though, mostly in Saint Emilion.

Medieval architectural, built during the wave of prosperity following the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine to Henry Plantagenet and the resulting English thirst for ‘Claret’, is more abundant. The Cathédrale Saint-André, where Eleanor married her first husband Louis VII in 1137, and two medieval gates built under the English ‘occupation’ managed to escape the 17th century redevelopment of the city. In the Graves wine region there are some fabulous examples of medieval architecture. Graves is considered the cradle of fine wine making and many noble families had hunting lodges here in the Middle ages. Château Olivier is probably one of the most outstanding examples that is still a working vineyard.

Serious wealth arrived in the 17th century; Bordeaux was France’s largest port, and exhibited this prosperity for all to see by building the beautiful waterfront of Bordeaux. Bordeaux remains one of Europe’s largest 18th century architectural centres, and a UNESCO World Heritage site. At its heart, the beautiful place de la Bourse, built in 1755 by Ange-Jacques Gabriel, is reflected in Le Miroir d’Eau, the largest reflecting pool in the world, built in 2006. A marriage of old and new that we would see repeated in the chateaux and wineries.

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La Place de La Bourse

Wine bought wealth but wealth also bought wine and ‘new money’ created architectural gems throughout the region used as showcases for the families, their wealth, their power and their wines.
Designing showcases is one thing but wine cellars must be also functional places of work. Wine making really remains very traditional in Bordeaux, these new cellars may be made of ultra modern glass and steel but the basic functions of selecting, preserving, fermenting and ageing remain largely the same. There is even a trend towards more traditional methods such as gravity feed, eschewing pumps.

As soils are more precisely sampled and understood, smaller and more precise plots within vineyards are leading to precision viticulture. Smaller plots mean more and smaller vats in cellars, allowing this more precise expression of ‘terroir’ to be carried from field to cellar, to barrel and to bottle.
The challenge is for these cellars to showcase the wine as they open up to visits and wine tourism but also to marry this design to functionality. To keep up to date with the latest technology, without losing their historical soul.

Chateau Beychevelle in Saint Julien, known as the Versailles of the Medoc, is a perfect example. It is built in the classic Chartreuse style of Bordeaux architecture: a single story building with an ‘enfilade’ of rooms that go from the front to the back of the building, with towers at each end. Rebuilt in 1757 along the banks of the Gironde estuary, its gardens run down to the water.  When it was built, it was a representation of wealth and status of the Marquis de Brassier, over-looking the estuary which brought in the wealth and carried away the wines.

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The Spectacular interior decoration of the Salons at Chateau Beychevelle

Under the current owners, Grands Millésimes de France, part of the Castel and Suntory groups, the beautiful Chateau has undergone considered restoration to the bedrooms and bathrooms to make them as deluxe as the chateau is grand. The central salons have a programme of restoration with some fully restored and others still presenting the restoration work done in the twentieth century. Guests can now dine and sleep in this 17th century decor. It is the perfect base for the ‘Wine and Design’ Tour.

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The Wine and Design team overlooking the gardens of Château Beychevelle running down to the Garonne Estuary.

Once you leave the Chateau you are immediately transported into the 21st century: the brand new cellars innovative in both design and technology. Allowing design, technical wine making and a low carbon footprint to come together in the glass and metal winery – a stunning juxtaposition of old and ultra modern.

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The spectacular new cellars of Château Beychevelle

Another striking Medoc example of the old and the new is Chateau Pedesclaux, a little further north in Pauillac. Here the two are much more intimately woven. Glass is the perfect medium for a showcase and at Pedesclaux it is the Château that is encased. Instead of building a classic extension the owners, Jacky and Françoise Lorenzetti, built a glass case around the chateau incorporating the dovecote into the new tasting room. The neighbouring cellar is also modern: stainless steel, temperature control and gravity-fed technology over four stories, discretely half-hidden into the side of the gravel outcrop the chateau sits upon.

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The glass tasting room of Château Pedesclaux including the dovecote and spectacular Murano chandeliers

Sometimes you can’t always work with the old, the Perrodo family were presented with such a challenge They are now well established in the Medoc, already owners of Chateau Labegorce, they purchased Château Marquis d’Alesme in 2006. Or at least the vines of this prestigious classified growth, next to chateau Margaux, the original chateau remains in the hands of the previous owners.

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There are dragons in Margaux – attention to detail at Château Marquis d’Alesme

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The oriental theme continues inside – the moon door entrance to the barrel cellars.

They had to start effectively from scratch to build a winery. And what a winery: functional but also beautiful, it is inspired by their dual Chinese and French heritage: a Zen cellar to make, age and share the wine from the estate.

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The new Château Marquis d’Alesme – a zen attitude in the heart of Margaux

They share their passion not just through the cellars and wine but also through the sensory gardens and small restaurant. Wine and design bring together two different cultures through a shared passion.

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The elegant design at château Marquis d’Alesme insides the sensory gardens

Closer to Bordeaux, in fact almost downtown, Chateau les Carmes Haut Brion is another, if very different, example of starting from scratch. The previous owner is still living in the original chateau so the new owner, Pichet, commissioned Philippe Stark to create a very original new cellar for this 33 ha vineyard (6 ha around the cellars and 27 ha near Martillac for Le C des Carmes). The cellar resembles a ship sailing on water with the wine making cellar on top and the barrel underneath and a terrace and tasting room above it all.

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The spectacular Stark cellars at Château les Carmes Haut Brion

 

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And the contemporary dining room above the cellars at Château Les Carmes Haut Brion

We were not only interested in the cellars, Abigail is an interior designer after all, so what happens in the chateau is as important, if not more important to her. After all these ‘homes’ are often used to welcome clients and prestigious guests to share the wines made from the surrounding vines. Abigail walked us through The Musée des Arts Décoratifs et du Design in a neoclassical townhouse built in 1779. It is dedicated to the classic Bordeaux interior design of the period; Abigail identified for us, the key styles of the period that we would find again in the wines properties.

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Enter into 18th century Bordeaux at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs et du Design

Chateau de Cerons is one such treasure; hidden away in Cerons, the smallest of the Bordeaux appellations, known for it’s elegant sweet white wines. Since 2012, Caroline and Xavier Peyromat are bringing this family property back to life. A listed historical monument, built in the early 17th century in the classic Bordeaux chartreuse style (mentioned above), it is a bijou of 18th century architecture.

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Chateau de Cerons

The original interiors have remained intact over the years and we found the same plaster reliefs on the walls and fireplaces here that we saw in the museum in Bordeaux. But this is no museum.

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The original decorative details in Château de Cerons

The chateau is at the heart of a vineyard producing a range of red and dry white Graves as well as the sweet Cerons and is also the family home. A family that generously shared their unique piece of history, opening their doors to us we discovered the chateau, vines and cellars as well as having a picnic in the park accompanied with wines from the property of course.

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a picnic in the grounds of Château de Cerons

So bored of touring Bordeaux? Never. There is always something new to see and something new to learn.

The long & international journey of a wine barrel.

Wherever I am in the world Bordeaux seems to follow me around, usually as bottles.  There is usually a familiar wine on the list. Sometimes on the other side of the world I’ll discover something new from very close to home. But it’s not only bottles and the wine they contain that travel from Bordeaux. Barrels do too.

Barrels are an important part of wine making. Used judiciously, they can add complexity, longevity and power. Used less wisely, they can overpower a wine, masking elegance and subtlety. Barrels add aromas and tannins but also help the wine along its evolution, encouraging a slow and controlled oxygenation of the wine as air seeps in through porous oak. This allows the highly reactive tannins from the wine and the oak to combine, creating larger tannin molecules that seem less abrasive on the palate.

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Beautiful French oak barrels at Château Montrose

This influence of the barrel upon the wine depends on so many factors. I mention oak above, but it doesn’t have to be, I’ve seen other wood essences used. Acacia is one you will sometimes find in white wine cellars in Bordeaux.

For oak the source of the tree, how slowly it grew, where it grew, (terroir doesn’t only come into play with grapes) and the age of the tree all play a role. The slower the tree grows the tighter the grain will be and the better quality the oak.

An oak tree destined for barrels may be over 200 years old. This raises a few eyebrows at a time when sustainability is a wine buzzword, but be reassured. These French oak forests are owned and tightly managed by the French state, only released for sale by auction, plot by plot, when they are ready to be felled and systematically re-planted. Thanks to Colbert’s 17th century policy of planting oak forests for war ships to fight the English, the French forests are thriving. Ironic then that so much of barrel-aged Bordeaux wine now ends up on the UK market.

Despite increasing worldwide demand, supply remains controlled explaining why these French oak barrels don’t come cheap; anything from €600 to €900 a pop depending on the size and the aging of the oak.

Once felled, how the oak is prepared and aged also influences the flavours it imparts to the wine. French oak is split not sawn. This ensures the grain of the wood is respected so the barrels remain watertight.  It adds to the cost, in labour but also reduces the volume of the tree trunk that can be used for barrel staves. American oak has a less regular grain so planks are sawn meaning more volume can be used, this higher yield and ease of manipulation reduces cost. The flavour profile is different however. Several wine makers have described American oak to me as giving  more coconut than vanilla aromas that are associated with French oak. You will find both in many Bordeaux cellars.

After being split and prepared into staves the wood must be aged, for anything up to three years. Exposed to wind and rain in the unpolluted areas near the forest, inelegant tannins are washed away and transformed by microscopic fungus on the surface of the cut wood.

Barrel staves ageing

Barrel staves ageing at Nadalie in the Medoc

Splitting also means that staves size will differ, assembling the staves to form a barrel is like creating a unique 3D puzzle for each individual barrel. Once the oak is matured barrel making begins. It’s a fascinating process that remains very manual – there is only so much you can mechanise. The key skills of heating the staves, whilst keeping them damp allows for sufficient flexibility to bend them to the rotund shape of a barrel. Then gentle toasting will impart the flavours to the wine; a raw barrel will bring very little to the party. Both these processes rely on the traditional skill and judgement of the barrel maker. It’s impressive to watch, I  highly recommend a visit to a cooperage if you have never seen this. The finished barrels are each a work of art.

Barrel toasts 2

Different degrees of toasting give different flavour profiles.

With so many variables in the process, each having an influence on the final taste profile, most barrels are tailor made to suit a particular wine maker. It’s not unusual to see barrels from several different cooperages in a chateau cellar, each one bringing its own flavour profile.

Barrel toasting

Barrel making – still a manual skill here at Boutes in Bordeaux

In Bordeaux barrels will be used for one to three years on average, depending upon the barrel policy of the wine maker. Their flavour profile changes with age. The newer the barrel, the more pronounced the flavours and the tannins it will impart to the wine. Vineyards producing powerful, often Cabernet driven, wines may use 100% new oak for their first wines. A more traditional Bordeaux approach is one third new, one third one year old and one third two year old barrels, combining new barrels with some already used for previous vintages. A producer making lighter wines may prefer older barrels if they are looking for the gentle evolution resulting from ageing in an oak container rather than a cement or stainless vat.

Blending defines Bordeaux wines and the use of barrels is part of this. Some wine makers will blend their wines before barrel ageing, others after or even during the ageing process. Blending just before bottling allows wine makers to profile the different lots of wine, adapting the choice of barrel to each lot (age of vines, different varietals). Other wine makers prefer to blend before ageing and rack from one barrel to another so the wine benefits from the complexity a range of barrels bring.

Racking

Racking from barrel to barrel, here in the cellars of Chateau Phelan Segur,  increases complexity as well as removing sediment from aging wines.

What happens to the barrels once the wine makers have finally finished with them? I come back to my introduction – they travel. I have seen Bordeaux oak barrels in many places. New ones are exported directly to wine makers from California to South Africa, with French oak holding a premium for many wine makers.

Barrel shipments Boutes

New oak barrels reading for shipping around the world from Boutes in Bordeaux

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A new Boutes oak barrel at Glenelly in South Africa

But used barrels travel too. They may go to other wineries. Rioja, for example, buys a lot of used barrels as much of their wine is aged for many years in older barrels looking to round out the wines through slow oxygenation rather than add powerful tannins.

As wine ages in barrels it soaks into the wood, staining it dark red and leaving a shiny deposit of tartaric crystals. This makes the barrel less porous but it also make the wood very attractive and staves from these older barrels are often up-cycled for decorative items such as bottle holders, and furniture – the limit is your inspiration.

Barrel art 2

Wine and tartrate deposits make used barrel staves decorative.

 

Barrel cellar door Evangile

Barrel staves make a stunning cellar door at Château l’Evangile in Pomerol

If you replace the wine with a more powerful alcohol it acts as a solvent leaching some of the wine colour and flavours as well as the oak flavours and tannins into the alcohol. Whisky is always aged in used barrels, although once you get to Scotland they are referred to as casks. These casks come from all over the world. The thousands of barrels in the ageing warehouses (not cellars) are all shapes, sizes and colours reflecting their origins, be it Spain, Portugal, USA or France, making for a very different impression to the neat and tidy lines of barrels we see in Bordeaux cellars.

Whisky casks 2

Used casks waiting to be prepared and filled with whisky at Glenfiddich.

Those dark, rich aromas and mouth-feel we associate with whisky for example, owe a lot to the previous tenants of the barrel. Whisky needs long cask ageing; straight from the still spirit is white, taking its colour from the barrel. Sherry or bourbon casks are traditionally used, the decline in sherry’s popularity, reducing production has resulted in whisky distillers often financing sherry companies barrel consumption to ensure their supply.

Whisky casks

Whisky casks of different origins in the Edradour warehouse

Spirit producers are getting more adventurous, offering a diverse and growing range of finishes. A finish is when a spirit spends the last few months of its life in a different cask, often a wine barrel. It makes a difference. Compare different finishes and you’ll see a different hue depending upon the barrels used. Unsurprisingly whiskies finished with a Bordeaux or other red wine barrel will have a more ruddy colour than others.

Barrels are expensive new but after three years of wine ageing they are worth less than €100. Even so it helps if you can ensure the supply chain. Handy then that some wineries and whisky distillers belong to the same groups. At the Auchentoshen distillery near Glasgow I saw many Chateau Lagrange barrels used for their Bordeaux finish – unsurprising as drinks group Suntory owns both the winery and the distillery.

There is synergy in other groups too. Glemorangie is owned by LVMH and was one of the first whisky distilleries to introduce a complete range of different finishes including a premium Sauternes finish. No coincidence perhaps that LVMH are also the owners of Château d’Yquem. The residual sweetness of the Sauternes barrels – reminiscent perhaps of those sweet sherry barrels – imparts unique aromas and mouth feel to the whisky. On my last trip to Scotland last year I saw Sauternes barrels from Château Suduiraut used for the Sauternes finish at Tullibardine.

Glenfiddich cerons

The Chateau du Seuil Cerons finish limited edition Glenfiddich

It was a sweet Bordeaux finish that first took me to Glenfiddich. I was there to sample a Cerons cask-finished 20-year-old Glenfiddich in barrels of Chateau du Seuil. Glenfiddich continues to innovate; the latest addition to their experimental series is Winter Storm a whisky finished in Canadian ice wine casks. Again that residual sweetness.

winters-bottle-box

Winter Storm from Glenfidich: the love story between whisky and sweet wine barrels crosses the Atlantic.

Why not import the whisky to Bordeaux rather than export the barrels? Upon returning to Bordeaux, I found that this is exactly what Moon Harbour is doing, finishing whisky from Scotland in barrels from Château La Louviere while they wait for the first whisky from their new Bordeaux based still.

Moonharbour range

Moon Harbour – Scotch Whisky aged in Bordeaux – whilst they wait for the first drops from the Bordeaux stills to age.

Whisky is not the only spirit that uses old barrels; Rum enjoys the influences of used barrels too. I have already talked about the joint venture between London wine merchant Berry Brothers and Rudd and Medine in Mauritius. This week, at a rum tasting in Mauritius, I tasted the delicious new Sauternes finish rum at the Chamarel Rhumerie. See what I mean when I say Bordeaux barrels travel?

Chamarel Sauternes

A Sauternes finish for the Chamarel Rhum from Mauritius

And what goes around comes around. The Balvenie Caribbean cask whisky is finished in – you guessed it – rum casks.

Balvenie line up small

The Blavenie line up including the Caribbean Cask

Even after all this there may still be life left in an old cask or barrel; furniture, planters or barbeque fuel perhaps? From fire to fire. The life of a barrel can be a long and winding road.

barrel art glenfiddich small

Old casks have a second life in artwork by a Glenfiddich artist in residence.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What’s New in Bordeaux Wine Retail?

Bordeaux is enjoying its success as a city break destination with visitor numbers skyrocketing. Its reputation as a gastronomic centre is also well established as witnessed by more Michelin stars this year. The sleeping beauty that was Bordeaux no longer slumbers but is wide awake and partying, joined by Parisian visitors now only two hours away on the high speed LGV train.

Wine makers are not slow to make the most of the vibrant city scene as a showcase for their wines. Not everyone who visits Bordeaux makes it out to the vineyards – although they really should, as it is now so easy.

Affordable Bordeaux are invited to the party. Chateau Lestrille, a family vineyard in the Entre Deux Mers region, now has it’s own wine bar in the heart of old Bordeaux. The dynamic owner, Estelle Roumage, opened the chateau to tourism years ago and now she has opened the wine bar ‘Un Château en Ville’ to serve and sell her wines to the city dwellers and visitors. She produces a complete range from white and red to rose and also bag in box – there’s plenty to choose from.

chateau en vile

Un Château en Ville

There is no shortage of great wine shops in Bordeaux and with so much competition and the fact that most of them are owned by wine merchants – prices are usually pretty competitive. If you have left your wine buying until the last minute – don’t despair. Wine Merchant Briau can help. They opened the ‘Pavilion des Vins du Bordeaux’ last year in the newly renovated train station built for the arrival of the new high speed LGV train from Paris. This is the second shop of the Wine Merchant under the management of Pierre-Antoine Borie. Son of owners Chateau Grand Puy Lacoste in Pauillac, Borie knows his way around Bordeaux wine and this large modern shop offers a range from €3 to €800, and there is always white, rose and champagne on ice for that last minute purchase. They are open from 10 ’til 8pm including Sundays and bank holidays to welcome the estimated 20 million passengers a year that are expected through the new  station.

Briau 1

The Pavillons des Vins de Bordeaux at the Gare Saint Jean

As it’s all about getting closer to the consumer, three innovative wine enthusiasts have a plan to get even closer this summer. They met at a wine tasting club in 2015 and pondered how to help consumers navigate the wide range of wines that can leave the uninitiated stumped. Their solution was to create the first crowd-funded wine shop in Bordeaux, Les Trois Pinardiers, offering a tight selection of just 50 wines that changes every three months.

The small ships that transported the wine from port to port along the Garonne and Dordogne rivers inspired their name. Fitting, as transport is another of their innovations: punters can order wine from their phone with the promise of a delivery in the city in under 30 minutes, with local food specialities and fresh bread too.

This year they will be getting even closer to their customers, launching the first Bordeaux wine truck. Food trucks are nothing new to Bordeaux, but Les Trois Pinardiers have adapted a Citroen H from the 70s into a mobile wine bar. It will hit the road in June.

Wine Truck

The Trois pinardiers’ Wine Truck

It’s never been easier to enjoy great wine, in Bordeaux at affordable, even without any forward planning.

 

 

 

 

Berry Brothers & Rudd – back to the future

I often write about the old and the new. It’s an appropriate theme in Bordeaux where wine makers try to honour tradition whilst embracing the latest technology – a fine line that many chateaux successfully tread.

Vineyards, Bordeaux or elsewhere, are not the only members of the wine trade to straddle different centuries: Berry Brothers and Rudd is a venerable London wine and spirits merchant. It is my go-to address for UK clients and others passing through, looking to improve their wine knowledge, stock their cellars or just have a really good tasting (and often food) experience and there has never been a better time to do so.

Founded in 1698 by ‘The Widow Bourne’, it seems fitting that there is once again a woman at the helm. Lizzy Rudd was named chairman at the end of 2017. Having a woman in the driving seat is not the only sign that they are moving with the times. Berry Brothers (or BBR, as their friends know them) is now a star of the silver screen, playing a major role in the latest Kingsman film, which has certainly engaged a younger generation if the numbers of people taking ‘selfies’ outside the entrance to the shop is anything to go by.

The whole of this historic building, on the corner of Saint James and Pall Mall, is dedicated to sharing the company’s passion for wine: a rabbit warren of interconnecting rooms, offices and private dinning rooms. It is a fitting location; this little corner of London is dedicated to hedonistic pleasures. Just across the road from the new retail store is the new 67 Pall Mall London, first members only wine club. James Fox Cigar shop is just up the road, boots and shoes can be custom made at neighbouring John Lobb or hats at Lock & Co. A little further afield is another of my favourite shops – Ormonde Jane whose perfumed candles are wonderful and good training for sensory perception. If you are gasping for a drink after all this wonderful shopping, the discreet Cocktail bar at Dukes Hotel makes the best Martinis – using BBR gin of course.

BBR has a history of innovation; in 1954 they created No 3, the first wine magazine – back on the shelves as of 2016 and were the first wine retailer to go on line as early as 1994. The Wine Knowledge pages of their site and their blog remain an excellent source of wine and spirits expertise: as is their new downloadable e book.

BBRLondon Shop - Simon Peel 04.11.14 (3)

Berry Brothers and Rudd – the old

 

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and the new

2017 saw the opening of the new modern retail shop. You can still enter No 3 St James, where the historic scales and Dickensian theme makes it feel as if you are stepping back in time, but it’s the new shop on Pall Mall where you should call in for the latest wine recommendations and advice the company is known for. Here you can choose from over 5,000 wines stored in an underground cellar the size of two football fields. Then there’s their spirits collection, as diverse as Whisky, Mauritian Rum, Kings Ginger and even a new Texas Bourbon – all iconic brands in their own right. Oh, and of course Gin. This month sees the re-launch of the original Berry Bros. & Rudd London Dry Gin.

BBRLondon Dry Gin - Susie Davis 2018

The new BBR London dry Gin Photo Credit Susie Davis

BBR is not just about selling. Through their exceptional wine school, they are also there to help you learn and discover the wine and spirits world. School here does not mean just sitting behind desks – even if they do have wine glasses rather than inkpots. Learning is interactive and hands-on with events, food and wine lunches, dinners and even Champagne teas.

The opening of the magnificent new Sussex cellars in 2015 has brought these experiences to a greater audience. I finally visited last week and found it incredible that this is sitting underneath such a cornerstone of London tradition. The design, somewhere between a Spanish Bodega and an ancient cellar, allows you to enjoy your pre dinner tasting whilst peering down to the room below where dinner awaits, prepared in their very own, and very busy kitchens, under head Chef Stewart Turner. These new rooms have become such a success that over 1,000 events were held there last year.

BBR Sussex cellars

The Sussex Cellar

BBR has six Masters of Wine on their staff, so plenty of wine brains there for the picking; fitting then that they champion the WSET (Wine and Spirits Education Trust), are silver Corporate Patrons of the educational organisation and were nominated for WSET Wine Educator of the year thanks to the tireless work of Rebecca Lamont.

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Back to school in the Pickering Cellar

Wine classes take place in the Pickering cellar, named after the smallest square in London, in turn named after the Widow Bourne’s son in law. It was the last place to see a duel in London and was also site of The Texas Legation from 1842-45, although they skipped town without paying the rent. No connection to the duel. The debt was paid in 1986, by a delegation in full Texan regalia, which might explain the inspiration behind one of their latest products, a Texan bourbon called Texas Legation! Another astute link to their rich history.

BBR Smaller Texas Legation Bourbon Whiskey

There’s still a little bit of Texas in the heart of Pall Mall

We heart Bordeaux.

I’ve already praised Bordeaux as the perfect romantic venue: the scenery, the chateaux, the wine, the food, and the waterways, all grounded in history, leave you spoilt for choice.

As the boom in wine tourism sees more properties opening their doors to visitors, these special spots are now accessible, whether for a tête à tête dinner, a romantic weekend or the perfect spot to pop the question.

As you explore the winding roads through the vines you will come across chateaux, views and villages that will inspire. Here are a few suggestions to make your next Bordeaux wine tour the height of romance.

UNESCO Heritage site, Saint Emilion, has to be one of the most romantic settings in the region; the perfectly preserved medieval village with its tiny lanes and many restaurants is perfect for hand-in-hand strolls. Famed for its red wines, you might not know they also make a sparkling wine here – Cremant de Bordeaux. Every romantic evening needs a little sparkle. Tucked away down a back street discover a hidden gem: the old cloisters of the Cordeliers. The wines are aged in the underground caves here and you can taste the results at a table for two under the tumbled-down old arches in the secluded gardens.

View from the steeple of Saint Emilion

A stone’s throw from Saint Emilion is the small, prestigious appellation of Pomerol. The 18th century Château Beauregard here has a classified garden full of mature trees that can be viewed from the terrace over looking a small lily filled moat. The private salons and dining room are at once elegant and intimate as are the newly renovated bedrooms

The Château Beauregard lilies

Should you wish to whisk your true love away in style why not in the Rolls Royce from Château Prieuré Marquet? They can pick you up and tour you around the vineyards before returning to this elegant chateau to the North of Bordeaux. Once there you can relax in the heated pool and enjoy the spa.

Spring at Château Soutard – Photo TOM FLECHT

Or wow with the ‘French Chateau’ factor, grander properties with gorgeous guest rooms include Chateau Soutard or further afield, the more intimate Chateau la Pape offers 5 beautiful rooms, also in the Graves. One of the rooms under the eves would be the perfect choice for a romantic stay.

Chateau Le Pape,

Setting the scene is important for a successful romantic venue, views over vineyards are usually pretty cool, even more so when there is a backdrop of a great river. The terrace of the magnificent 16th century Château La Rivière in Fronsac over looks the Dordogne. The romantic renaissance architecture offers more than a view, with secluded areas in the garden including a fountain as well as guest rooms for the night.

Château La Riviere

Across the Entre Deux Mers, Château Biac enjoys vertiginous views over the Gironde heading south towards Toulouse. You can even stay in one of their guest cottages to complete your romantic evening.

The view across the Garonne from Château Biac

Dine on the water by joining a Bordeaux River Cruise along the Gironde, Dordogne or Garonne, watching the vines slide by as you enjoy cocktails, a wine tasting or dinner. You could even venture as far as the coast. Less than hour from Bordeaux, at Pyla is Europe’s largest sand dune. The hotel and restaurant La Corniche is perched right at the top with views over the Arcachon Basin. Taste the oysters, fresh from the ocean, with a dry white Bordeaux – we all know the reputation of oysters.

Cruise Bordeaux

Driving back inland stop in the Medoc. Le Château du Tertre in Margaux has beautiful guest rooms. The Orangerie by the pool there has to be one of the most romantic dinning venues in the Medoc.

The orangerie at Château du Tertre

What wine to serve on Saint Valentine’s? Château Calon Segur has the perfect label for the occasion. The Marquis de Segur created the label for this wine in the 18th century. it remains the same to this day. Despite owning the more prestigious Chateau Latour and Chateau Lafite at the time, he said his heart lay with Calon Segur and drew a heart around the name just to prove it.

I hope your Bordeaux romance lasts just as long. Happy Saint Valentine’s day.

A version of this post previously appeared on the Great Wine Capitals blog 

 

Medoc Classifications – Revolution or evolution?

If you follow this blog you’ll know that, despite its long history, nothing in Bordeaux stands still for very long. This includes the classifications.

Sometimes it takes a look back over your shoulder to move forward. You could say this is the case for the current changes in the Medoc Classifications. I’m not talking 1855 – there is life in the Medoc outside of these famous 60 chateaux!

The Cru Bourgeois classification dates back to the 1930s. By this time, the 1855 classification was established as a benchmark for Bordeaux quality. At its creation, it was a ‘snapshot’ of the wine hierarchy, fixed in time on the request from Napoleon III for the Paris Universal Exhibition held that year in Paris. Up to this time, the hierarchy was constantly evolving with Cru Bourgeois jostling for position amongst the top vineyards.

Once this (almost) unchanging system was locked down, the 400 odd properties waiting to see if it would evolve further and include them were left frustrated. By the 1930s they decided to create their own Cru Bourgeois Classification.

It would be unfair to reduce the Cru Bourgeois classification to one for also-rans. The term Cru Bourgeois was used way before the 1855 Classification, honouring the origin of many Medoc vineyards established thanks to people of the ‘bourg’ or town of Bordeaux – many of them acting as wine merchants.

Flash code stickers on the neck of the Cru Bourgeois bottles

At its creation there were three levels of quality: Cru Bourgeois, Cru Bourgeois Superieur and Cru Bourgeois Exceptionnel. Over the years the Cru Bourgeois notion became diluted: being used by other appellations outside of the Medoc, with chateaux changing hands and also being used as a second wine of a classified growth in some cases. By the 1990s, the French authorities asked the classification to get its house in order with a tighter set of rules and regulations. When the Classification was modernised, first in 2003 (over ruled by the courts on concerns about the impartiality of the jury) and finally in 2007, judging criteria included quality, of course, but also vineyard and cellar inspections.

The three tier hierarchy was abolished and properties were either in or out: Cru Bourgeois or not. This continues to be the case. For the moment. Currently, every vineyard has to reapply for the classification with each vintage. With no Saint Juliens currently in the last, September 2017, classification, it included 271 properties from across seven of the eight Medoc appellations. You can see the classification here.

 

The signature for the 2015 vintage Cru Bourgeois Classification

This annual reassessment was one of the reasons the hierarchy was not reintroduced. It was complicated enough to establish the current system.

There is no denying that in a group of almost 300 properties, there will be a variation in quality. Some vineyards have elected not to be part of the classification due to this variation – how can they differentiate themselves in such a large group?

The French public authorities have just approved the process that will allow a return to the historical three-tier hierarchy, which should appear on wine labels as of the 2018 vintage, which will be on the market in 2020.

Over these next five years, this classification will be assessed on the quality of wines judged by a blind tasting of several vintages by a supervised independent jury but will also include respect for the environment by the vineyards, inspections carried out at the properties throughout the classification period, traceability and the authentication of each bottle.

Chateau Lilian Ladouys, Cru Bourgeois de Saint Estèphe and winner of La Coupe des Crus Bourgeois could be up for a promotion?

This three tier classification should be published in 2020 and good for the five years until 2025.

The other historic classification in the Medoc that is on the move is Les Crus Artisans. You may be even less familiar with classification; there are fewer properties involved and they tend to be smaller (between 1 and 5 ha) so not always easy to find on export markets. Artisan means craftsman, and despite this being a historical term used as early as 1868 in the Cocks and Féret, “Bordeaux and Its Wines” the first official Cru Artisan classification dates from 2006.

Unlike the 1855 and the Cru Bourgeois classification, The Cru Artisans, were created with the objective of a regular over haul. 44 properties were classified in 2006 with a planned reclassification every 10 years. They are not exactly on schedule; the new classification will be announced this year.

An artisan winemaker is defined as a producer who is responsible for the entire production process: vineyard work, vinification, aging of the wine, bottling, packaging, and sales. Behind every Cru Artisan there is an owner who is fully involved in the vineyard, in the cellars, and in the salesroom. Currently the classification includes 36 vineyards as since 2006 some owners have retired and others been bought up by larger neighbours.

The announcement of these updates has been met with some cynicism and derision by some commentators in export markets, saying that consumers neither understand nor care about these classifications.

But what about is if this is not only about the consumer? Perhaps the relevance of these classifications needs to be seen through the eyes of the producers. An annual, five-year or even ten-year assessment is an extra incentive for producers to keep their eye on the quality ball. Of course, a producer should always be trying to make the best wine they can, given the vintage conditions, but having an extra motivation of being able to measure themselves against their neighbours in an impartial classification is an impetus to go the extra mile. Never underestimate peer pressure.

Bordeaux bashers assume that all Bordeaux properties are big, financially sound institutions. Well not at this level. These wines are in a very competitive market segment. The classification on the label may mean little or nothing to many consumers, but belonging to a group that runs tastings, invites journalists and other influencers to taste and discover the wines allows these smaller family properties a shop window and that they could not obtain if they were doing it alone. You can’t be in the vineyard, the wine cellar and the market place all at once. Belonging to an association that is flying your flag alongside your peers is a cost effective way for small vineyards to make a name for themselves in a busy market place. All the more so if there is an entry barrier of quality rather than just a membership fee.

The disappearance of many of the Cru Artisans since 2006 underlines the problems that these small, family-run properties are facing, even in some of Bordeaux’s more prestigious appellations. These classifications can have a role to play in helping to keep these small producers in business, raising awareness of their very existence to the trade and consumers alike.

Keep a look out for them.

How to survive a Wine Tour.

It’s that time of the year again, when the words detox and dry January are popping up more than champagne corks. It’s also when people plan travel for the year ahead and, judging by my inbox, wine tours are on a lot of to-do lists for 2018.

I have already offered advice on how to organise your wine visit to Bordeaux but, given the current concern for our health, it seems appropriate to include a few tips on how our livers and waistlines can survive a week of wine tastings and wine dinners.

The ideas below are taken from my book, The Drinking Woman’s Diet – A liver- friendly lifestyle guide, to be published next month. It is based on my bitter-sweet experience of living and working in the wine and food industry in France for over 20 years.

– Eat breakfast. You might not feel like it after a big wine dinner the night before but a full stomach will slow down the absorption of alcohol into the blood stream: take the eggs and have some yoghurt for those probiotics.

Breakfast – an important start to the wine tour day

– Drink a glass of water before each tasting and before eating. I always keep a stock of bottles with me when touring. Match a glass of wine with a glass of water.

Keep the water to hand

– If your hotel is amongst the vines start the day with a walk through the vines. If you’re staying in Bordeaux, walk along the banks of the Garonne, enjoy some fresh air and work up an appetite for breakfast – see above.

– Take your supplements. Alcohol can be as challenging for your gut flora as for your liver so take some probiotics alongside your milk thistle this may help. Another supplement is Glutathione, known by wine makers for preserving the freshness of white wines – it appears to help preserve the liver too. The science is out as to whether the body can process Glutathione directly; the theory is the body can break down Milk Thistle into Glutathione. I take both if it’s a busy week – better safe than sorry.

– Don’t wear white, you’ll be spitting and red wine stains. Even experienced wine tasters don’t always have great aim. Don’t be shy about it. It’s not considered rude to the wine maker if you don’t drain each glass. They’ll be spitting.

Barrel samples can stain

– And on the subject of stains, teeth can take a pounding, especially when tasting barrel samples. Many people swear by bicarbonate of soda mixed in with toothpaste. Oil pulling with coconut oil or sesame oil is an ancient Ayurveda practise to keep the mouth and gums healthy – takes a bit of getting used to but I find it helps with tannin build-up on my teeth. A glass of champagne at the end of the day is also very effective and much more delicious.

I find a glass of champagne at the end of the day works wonders

– Don’t eat the bread. Trickier than it sounds when you sit down to lunch, starving after a morning of tasting, It may seems impossible to resist the basket of delicious fresh French bread the waiter has just put on the table – but resist you must, if not you’ll never make it through lunch or be too full for the delicious dessert.

I don’t always follow my own advice!

– Clients often comment on the lack of vegetables on offer in French restaurants. The French do eat lots of vegetables. At home a French family meal will start with either salad (crudités) in the summer or soup in the winter. Vegetables will be served with the main course and salad offered with cheese, served before dessert.

Of course the French eat vegetables

Touring the farmers markets will show you the fresh and seasonal variety on offer. So why don’t we see them on more menus? Restaurants showcase ‘noble’ products such as foie-gras, dismissing veggies as homely, sometimes offering only one vegetable as an accompaniment; and it’s often potatoes (there’s a reason they’re known as French fries).

I always try to include ‘greens’ in pre organised menus but if there is no veg proposed with your chosen dish at a restaurant, ask for the potatoes to changed to the vegetable of the day, or some salad, they are usually happy to oblige.

I’ll have salad with that please

– Take a nap on the bus on the way home, I make it a rule not talk over the speaker system after the last tasting of the afternoon. I’ll wake you when we get there.

– Choose a healthy wine tour – yes really. In May I’m teaming up with yoga teacher Martine Bounet for a wine and yoga weekend. I’m always happy for guests to join me for a few morning sun salutations before the day’s tour starts.

Wine and Yoga atf Château Lamothe Bergeron

If all else fails and you haven’t been able to resist the bread and the fries, allow a couple of extra days at the end of your tour and book yourself into detox at the Source de Caudalie Wine spa. Just don’t say I didn’t warn you.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Happy New Year

Goodbye 2017, you’ve been great company and certainly kept me busy. My strapline states I’m Bordeaux based but open to persuasion. Well I was persuaded this year. I started the tour season with wine in the Rhone and ended with whisky in Scotland – quite a contrast!

It’s not only Bordeaux that blends –  whisky blending at Glenfiddich

The Rhone tour was mostly familiar territory, with a few new discoveries. The wines from the northern Rhone never fail to thrill and the scenery is so breathtaking.

The view over the Northern Rhone

The tour ended with a few days in Provence staying at the spectacular Villa Lacoste. For me, Château Lacoste is emblematic of the changes we are seeing in wine tourism. The wineries visited, the wines tasted and meeting wine makers remains of course at the heart of the experience, but there is now so much more to wine tourism than simply wine. Château Lacoste, with its spectacular art park and hospitality, is the perfect example of this trend towards a complete and high-end experience.

Breakfast at Villa Lacoste

The marriage of art and culture has inspired me for 2018. In the Spring, I’ll be joining forces with interior designer Abigail Hall on a Bordeaux Wine and Design tour exploring how wine has influenced the history of architecture and design in the city of Bordeaux and its chateaux.

It is now easier than ever to participate in a broader approach to wine tourism thanks to a new initiative known as Wine Paths. I’ve been working with their new web site recommending some of my favourite wine tour experiences. Their objective is to make it easier than ever to plan a complete international wine experience. They have partnered with leaders in wineries, hotels, restaurants and other wine led experiences from most major wine regions. France of course, but also across Europe and the world as far afield as South Africa, South America, Australia and New Zealand. You can book with them directly though the site or hand your experience over to selected local specialists.

Filming with Bordeaux Tutors from the Wine School at the Cité du Vin.

Teaching is at the heart of what I do, at the Bordeaux wine school and around the world. As well my annual coast-to-coast tour of the US, sharing the wines of the Medoc with the American distribution trade, I taught in Hong King again this year and in Switzerland. In Hong Kong and Switzerland, the emphasis was on hotel schools. I love these classes, here is the future of wine service and it looks very promising indeed.

With students from the Culinary Institute in Hong Kong

Next year I’ll be involved in more virtual teaching. Around February my book, Bordeaux Bootcamp, will grow into an online experience thanks to The Napa Valley Wine Academy. They are creating an all-online, interactive course, perfect for anyone who wants to become more Bordeaux confident; I’m excited about reaching a broader audience than I can when I’m on the road. The course will be the perfect preparation for Bordeaux drinking but perhaps for a visit to Bordeaux too.

Bordeaux Bootcamp.

When I was in the USA I managed to finally visit the Fingers Lakes. Yet another region where the landscape is a beautiful as the wines – a theme in many wine regions. I had the pleasure of meeting up again with Karen McNeil. As the keynote speaker at the Women for Wine Sense conference her take on cool climate wines was right on trend. Again and again this year the notion of elegance and freshness seems to be on the lips of wine makers – and drinkers.

The Finger Lakes

Of course I spent some time in Bordeaux too, with many familiar faces coming back to Bordeaux for more. In my suggestions on how to tour, three days is an absolute minimum. This will only want to make you come back for more and include a visit to a lesserknown part of Bordeaux or to another winery. This year I’m looking forward to welcoming some guests back for their third visit – you just can’t get too much of a good thing.

Every year I say I’ll do a bit less but 2018 doesn’t look like it’ll be that year. Touring will start in Champagne this year and I’ll be heading to India – more for yoga than wine, although I have it on good authority that Indian wines are worth seeking out, so watch this blog for my impressions.

Wine and wellness is also a theme I’ll be exploring more throughout the year. After the success of wine and wellness events in 2017, where I met some amazing people, I’m keen to take this further. Winefulness is now officially a thing; meditation skills can increase your tasting skills. Don’t believe me? You can try it with me this spring when I’ll be working with yoga teacher Martine Bounet for a Wine and Yoga weekend where we’ll be visiting top wineries in our yoga kit. On a yoga workshop this year in Mauritius, I meet the inspirational Karine Kleb – who initiated me into the pleasures of a chocolate meditation that’s definitely going to be on the programme.

Yoga in the grounds of Château Lamothe Bergeron

Wine, chocolate, culture and yoga – what is there not to love? Health and Hedonism is going to be a much used hashtag in 2018, at least by me. My latest book, A Drinking Woman’s’ Diet, a liver-friendly lifestyle guide, is now with the publishers and should be available early next year – hopefully in time to give a helping hand to any flagging New Years’ resolutions.

Happy New Year